A depletion of centre is likely to result in a loss of independence and security for the elder person Chta et al. Such abuse may necessitate that the elder person become dependent on family members, inducing or adding to their financial burden and stress Coker chah Little, Alternatively, financial abuse may result in elder persons becoming dependent on social welfare agencies, with a ificant decline in their quality of life Coker and Little, From a psychological perspective, a loss of trust in others has been identified as the most common consequence of financial abuse Deem, In addition, victims may become very fearful, both of crime and of their vulnerability to crime, which in micbigan may lead to dramatic changes in lifestyle and emotional well-being Fielo, Victims may also experience a loss of confidence in their own financial abilities, stress, and isolation from family or friends Deem, Financial abuse may lead to depression, hopelessness, or even suicide Nerenberg, c ; Podnieks, In addition, it has been noted that, unlike muchigan and psychological abuse, the effects of financial abuse may not end with the death of the victim.
Family members whose inheritance was reduced or depleted as a result of the financial abuse will suffer loss and may themselves feel abused, particularly if they felt entitled to inherit the victim's assets Dessin, One set of reasons addresses the financial assets and acumen of the elderly. For example, one widely cited factor is that elder persons possess a large proportion of the nation's wealth Central California Legal Services, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse,with 70 percent of all funds deposited in financial institutions controlled by persons age 65 and older Dessin, Lije explanations rfee been that older people may be more michgian than their younger counterparts Central California Legal Services, or may be relatively unsophisticated about financial matters, particularly when they are unfamiliar with advances in technology that have made managing cener more complicated National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, Also, they may not realize the value of their assets—particularly homes that have appreciated greatly in value Central California Legal Services, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, Other reasons focus on characteristics of the elderly.
One explanation is that elder persons may be easily identifiable and are pd vulnerable Central California Legal Services, Free granny chat center line michigan addition, elder persons may be more likely to have conditions or disabilities that make them easy targets for financial abuse, including forgetfulness or other cognitive impairments Central California Legal Services, ; Choi and Mayer, Elder persons may also have a diminished capacity to rationally evaluate proposed courses of action Dessin, A third set of factors focuses on social isolation that the elderly may experience Quinn, For example, elder persons may be more likely to have disabilities that make them dependent on others for help.
In addition, seniors may be isolated due to their lack of mobility or because they live alone, which shields perpetrators from scrutiny and insulates victims from those who can ffree Dessin, ; Nerenberg, c. Also, the elderly may be lonely and desire companionship and thus be susceptible to persons seeking to take advantage of them Hwang, A fourth group of reasons suggests that perpetrators assume that financial abuse of the elderly is unlikely to result in apprehension or repercussions.
Perpetrators may believe that elder persons are less likely to report abuse or take action against perpetrators, particularly if they have been victimized by family members or other trusted individuals Central California Legal Services, ; Hwang, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, The elder person may be afraid or embarrassed to ask for help or be intimidated by the abuser Hwang, grwnny Perpetrators may also recognize that older people in very freee health may not survive long enough to follow through on lengthy legal interventions Central California Legal Services, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, or that centet will not make convincing witnesses National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, However, there has also michifan limited systematic research on this issue.
Older women who are white and live alone are considered to be the most likely victims of this abuse, perhaps more so than for any other form of elder abuse. The national NEAIS report found that 63 percent of the APS reports from involved victims who were women, which was somewhat more micuigan their percentage of the elder population at that time However, when relying on the reports of their sentinels, which were asserted to be more comprehensive in scope and to include unreported incidents, the NEAIS report concluded that Another report concluded from the scant amount of research lkne and the authors' analysis of cases from Alabama that more than 60 percent of the victims centet financial abuse of the elderly were likely to be elderly white females over the age of 70 Coker and Little, A study of APS financial exploitation reports in an upstate New York county between and found that the elder victims were, on average, 78 years old, A Canadian national survey found that 62 percent of elder victims of financial abuse were female, only 31 percent were married the lowest percentage of any category of cgat abuse—51 percent of elderly nonvictims were married54 percent were widowed, and 58 percent lived alone the highest percentage of any category of elder abuse, with only 39 percent of elderly nonvictims living alone Podnieks, The widely cited profile of a target for financial abuse is generally a white woman over 75 who is living alone Bernatz et al.
A of reasons are given for why most elder victims of financial abuse are women Dessin, gree One is actuarial in nature; namely, women live longer than men and thus more women are available as ceenter for financial abuse of the elderly. Second, perpetrators may perceive women as weak and vulnerable in general.
Third, many women have not handled their financial affairs because their husbands handled them. Regardless of gender, a lack of familiarity with financial matters in general or the means of conducting a particular financial transaction enhances the likelihood of financial abuse Choi et al. Changes in and unfamiliarity with the means by which financial transactions are conducted, including ilne transactions, add to this vulnerability.
The risk of financial abuse may also be increased when centef elder person is uncomfortable speaking about financial issues Rush and Lank, In general, elders who own a house, a substantial and visible asset, are more likely to be exploited Choi et al. Other factors identified as increasing the likelihood of financial abuse focus on the social status of the elder person.
Identified risk factors include an elder person's social isolation, loneliness, and recent loss of loved ones Bernatz et al. Having family members who are unemployed or who have substance abuse hcat have also been identified as placing an elder person at greater risk of financial abuse National Committee for the Prevention lie Elder Abuse, Similarly, when a relative is the elder person's only social support, the risk of financial exploitation may be increased Choi et al.
Conversely, having family members who are actively involved in good faith in assisting with or managing the financial affairs of the elderly has been determined to diminish the risk that the elderly will experience financial abuse Rush and Lank, However, a combination of denial of a need for such assistance, busy lives, and a reluctance to confront difficult issues may keep many family members from such involvement Rush and Lank, It has also been noted that little is known about the close bonds that develop naturally between the elderly and their caregivers, particularly when services are provided the elderly within their homes, and what le to financial abuse Quinn, Physical or mental disabilities of elder persons have also been identified as risk factors, including medical problems that limit their ability to understand and comprehend financial issues and impairments that create dependency on others Bernatz et al.
However, it has been argued that the extent to which older persons are vulnerable to financial abuse is more directly related to the circumstances in which they live than advanced age per se Smith, and that age alone should not lead to a presumption of incapacity Wilber and Reynolds, These indicators have been distributed to bank employees, lawyers, and the public in general. It is recommended that no single indicator be taken as establishing the existence of financial abuse, as there may be other explanations for the occurrence of the indicator; instead reliance is placed on a pattern or cluster of indicators National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, It has also been argued that it is almost impossible to detect financial abuse without considerable knowledge of the victim's financial affairs Dessin, It has been suggested that bank tellers, personal bankers, officials responsible for registering deeds, family members, and neighbors are the most likely to observe the s of financial abuse Henningsen, The indicators can be grouped by the setting or free granny chat center line michigan in which they are most likely to be observed.
A relatively obvious indicator is missing belongings or property e.
Financial abuse may be suggested by an absence of documentation about financial arrangements or transactions e. Implausible or evasive explanations by the elder person or the caregiver about the elder person's finances, the elder person's unawareness of or confusion about recently completed financial transactions, or the elder person appearing to be afraid or worried when talking about money may serve as indicators Carroll, ; Central California Legal Services, ; National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, Alternatively, unpaid bills, eviction or foreclosure notices, or notices to discontinue utilities despite the availability of adequate financial resources may suggest financial abuse Carroll, ; Central California Legal Services, ; National Center on Elder Abuse, free granny chat center line michigan National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, ; Zimka, Financial abuse may also be indicated by a lack of care or substandard care, a decline in personal grooming, or an absence of clothing, food, or other basic necessities when the older person can afford them National Center on Elder Abuse, ; National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, ; Zimka, Similarly, financial abuse may be suggested by complaints from the elder person about once having had money but not seeming to have much anymore Carroll, ; Zimka, or a sudden inability to pay bills Langan and Means, Additional als may be provided by an unkempt residence when arrangements have been made for providing care or a failure to receive services for which payment has already been made Central California Legal Services, Alternatively, the provision of services that are not necessary may also indicate financial abuse National Center on Elder Abuse, Untreated medical or mental health problems may be an indication of financial abuse Central California Legal Services, ; Hwang, In general, ificant cognitive impairments suggest vulnerability to financial abuse Choi et al.
Another widely cited indicator is social isolation of the elder person, including a discontinuation of prior relationships with family and friends Central California Legal Services, ; Henningsen, ; National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, ; Wilber and Reynolds, Kine dependence on others, loneliness, loss of loved ones, and a reduced sense of self-worth can indicate vulnerability to financial abuse Wilber and Reynolds, Financial abuse may be suggested by a noticeable increase in the spending of people living with or caring for the older person Dessin, ; Henningsen, or by sudden heavy traffic in and out of the home Hwang, Another warning al may centwr caregivers or family members who express excessive interest in the amount of money being spent venter the older person, who ask only financial questions, or frde do not allow the elder person to speak Carroll, ; Langan and Means, ; National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, ; Tueth, Also a promise of lifelong care may be michiban by an implicit or explicit expectation that the elder person's funds will be transferred to the caregiver Hwang, Family members who are addicted to alcohol or drugs or who indicate free granny chat center line michigan feel entitled to the elder person's funds may suggest financial abuse Hwang, Alternatively, a circle of mutual dependence or conflict that engulfs family members may engender financial abuse or leave family members blind to its michiban Gold and Gwyther, A second setting in which indicators of financial abuse may arise is associated with the conduct of banking transactions.
For example, financial abuse may cente suggested by withdrawals from or transfers between bank s that the older person cannot explain, unusual or unexplained sudden activity, including large withdrawals particularly when the elder person is accompanied centeg another personor frequent transfers or ATM withdrawals Coker and Little, ; Commonwealth of Massachusetts, ; Henningsen, ; Hwang, ; National Center on Elder Abuse, ; National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, Other indicators include having bank statements and canceled checks sent to an address that is not the elder person's residence, suspicious atures on checks or other documents, and the inclusion of additional names on an elder person's credit card or bank ature card Coker and Little, ; National Center on Fre Abuse, ; National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, ; Zimka, Related indicators focus on deviations from the elder person's usual banking behavior Commonwealth of Massachusetts, ; National Center on Elder Abuse, They include suspicious activity on credit card s; bank activity that is erratic, unusual, or uncharacteristic; and bank activity inconsistent with the person's abilities e.
Another indication is provided when individuals have no awareness of the current state of their personal financial affairs Rush and Lank, A third cluster of indicators is associated with legal transactions involving the elder person and is directed largely at attorneys. vranny
They include the execution of legal documents or arrangements, such as powers of attorney, by an older person who mixhigan confused or who does not understand or remember the transaction Carroll, ; Central California Legal Services, ; Hwang, ; National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, Other s are suspicious or forged atures on documents and changes in the older person's property, titles, will, or other documents, particularly if the changes are imchigan, sudden, or favor new acquaintances National Center on Elder Abuse, ; National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, ; Zimka, Another al can be the sudden appearance of ly uninvolved relatives claiming rights to an elder person's affairs chst possessions National Center on Elder Abuse, A fourth cluster of als is associated with visits to physicians or other health care providers.
One such al is a patient's unmet physical needs notwithstanding the availability of financial resources Lachs and Pillemer, Other identified behaviors are missed medical michiigan, dropping out of treatment, uncharacteristic nonpayment for services, declining physical and psychological health, defensiveness or hostility by the caregiver during visits or on the phone, and an unwillingness by the caregiver to leave the elder person alone during appointments Tueth, Nevertheless, there has been considerable speculation about them by professionals interested in reducing lie abuse.
One set lone motivations widely identified tends to be associated with all forms of elder abuse. Frequently cited motivations include the perpetrator's substance abuse, mental health, gambling, or financial problems Dessin, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, ; Tueth, Where the perpetrator is a primary caregiver, caregiver stress has been cited as a cause of this abuse Dessin, There are also a of characteristics linked relatively uniquely to financial abuse.
For example, the perpetrator may stand to inherit assets and granny justified in taking an advance or in exercising control over assets that are perceived to be almost or rightfully the perpetrator's own Dessin, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, When the perpetrator is an heir, he or she may conclude that preemptive steps are necessary to prevent the inheritance from cejter exhausted in paying for medical or other expenses National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, Alternatively, negative attitudes toward persons identified as likely micigan may motivate the perpetrator to act to prevent them from yranny the elder person's assets National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, Because of a prior negative relationship with the elder person, the perpetrator may feel a sense granby entitlement to these free granny chat center line michigan as payback for prior exploitation or abuse Dessin, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, The perpetrator may be motivated by a sense that he or she should be reimbursed for having carried a substantial care-giving burden for the elder person Dessin, The perpetrator may conclude that the elder person has more assets than needed and the perpetrator has too few, and thus the perpetrator is entitled to a share of the elder person's assets Quinn, Also, an intricate relationship may exist between elders and their caregivers.
Older people, who may no longer place as great a value on their material possessions, may give gifts as a means of maintaining a power balance in their relationship with the caregiver. At the same time, the caregiver may indicate that such gifts are necessary if the elder person wishes to retain the caregiver's attention and assistance Quinn, When such motivations are present, a perpetrator may read into an elder person's words or behavior consent to a conveyance that a more objective perspective would not.
The recipient of a gift may argue that the elder person provided implicit or explicit indications that the individual be given certain assets. When consent to a transfer of assets has been clearly provided and is not induced by fraud, duress, or undue influence, many assets can be transferred on a relatively informal basis. However, individuals with the motivations described above may report consent to a transfer by an elder person that was not given or was not clearly provided, or attempt to induce this consent by fraud, duress, or undue influence.
Nonrelative perpetrators have been found to include career criminals in the business of defrauding others in general and elders in particular, while others were overcome by greed under the circumstances Choi et al. It has been observed that many exconvicts become paid caregivers for vulnerable individuals, a practice that goes unchecked because most states do not require criminal background checks and do not prohibit persons convicted of certain crimes from working with the elderly Nerenberg, c.
As for the characteristics of the perpetrators, the NEAIS report concluded that the relative youth of perpetrators of financial abuse was particularly striking compared to other types of abuse National Center on Elder Abuse, This study found It also found 59 percent of the perpetrators were male versus In addition, people who financially abuse the elderly are often family members, particularly adult children and grandchildren National Center on Elder Abuse, ; Quinn, ; Rush and Vhat, ; Linne, A study of one county's APS reports of financial exploitation found that roughly michiigan percent of the perpetrators were the victim's sons or daughters, 20 percent were other relatives only 1.
A free granny chat center line michigan study found that spouses were perpetrators of financial exploitation in only 1. This study also found, however, that nonrelatives were the perpetrators in Another report concluded that perpetrators are often relatives, particularly children or grandchildren of the victim, many of whom depend on the elderly victim for housing or other assistance, have substance abuse problems, and are represented almost equally by both genders Coker and Little, That, she says, makes her doubly a far-right target.
They have to protect freedom of expression, as well as ensure public safety. And the law means they have to act reactively, even if groups with known history of violence gather. What are little black girls going to think of you for protecting white supremacists? This stuff is craaaaazy. Violent as all hell pic. View original tweet on Twitter But the chief's words don't assuage Luis and his comrades.
He shows me the brick that smashed through his front window and a nautical flare that was tossed at his house. Luis looks at me with disbelief. We agreed to hold the discussion at the North West Cannabis Club, a smoking den on the east side of the city.
Weed is legal in Portland and the rest of Oregon. As they arrive, the security guards search them for weapons. After the tense beginning - and Luis's refusal to take off his glasses - I begin by asking them what they think of each other. I think he's violent towards women. I think he's a racist, I think he's uneducated and I think he's misguided. I think he's trying to duck out of responsibility.
Rob is unrepentant. I turn to Luis and show micihgan a clip. He's getting in the face of a right-wing protester. His response to the video is surprising.
You can see for yourself; we've put the conversation on YouTube - it contains strong language, violence and drug use. As the conversation progresses, Rob starts to smoke high-strength cannabis oil and Luis tokes on a t. But the mood rarely changes. I put it to them that they're both distrustful of the police and America's prison system.
Both describe themselves as anarchists. But Luis immediately rejects the comparison. He points out that despite their professed libertarianism and anger at the police in Portland, many Proud Boys are supportive of law enforcement in general. Some use the pro-police "blue lives matter" slogan. Do they care? One last question: how does this all end? Luis talks about the big picture and his general political beliefs: anti-racism, a national education policy, universal health care, justice for Native Americans.
When it comes to Portland and the Proud Boys, he's terse and clear. Burn your Fred Perry. Make a video renouncing hate and the Proud Boys. Go away," he says. One word: "Badly.