Pyle and Peter Pyle Non-Established Species List The following list includes species reported to have been released in the Hawaiian Islands or those that have been identified in the field away from semi-captive situations such as hotel grounds and pondsbut for ameriacn viable populations were never established in the wild. Identification of all taxa have not necessarily been substantiated by the authors and this list is undoubtedly incomplete.
See species s for information on non-established populations or sightings of non-native species on islands apart from other established populations in Hawaii. Square brackets  indicate reported species in which identification was later corrected or is highly questionable.
Singles reported on Moloka'i Ranch late s-early s and at Ulupalakua, Maui, Possibly imported for release in CaumE Up to six more reported from same area AugJanand Mar One reported from Diamond Head Crater in Jan Black-bellied Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna autumnalis. One reported Kapa'a, Kaua'i, 1 Apr ; afrucan escape from nearby park, where 9 observed 27 Jan Six reported from Wailua hotel grounds 20 Jan Fulvous Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna bicolor.
See under Hypothetical List.
Swan Goose Anser cygnoides. Others or hybrids may have been there through the late s. Graylag Goose Anser anser.
Many additional reports of up to 7 domestic varieties or hybrids escaped throughout all Southeastern Islands. Canada Goose Branta canadensis. Pair of escapes reported Kawaiele Sanctuary, Kaua'i captured and returned to owner Feb Were laying eggs when captured. Mute Swan Cygnus olor.
Pair reportedly imported for introduction in LoceySwedberg a. Others present americn hotel-grounds ponds on Kaua'i and Maui Black Swan Cygnus atratus. Pair possibly imported for introduction in Locey ; may have mistakenly referred to Mute Swans; Swedberg a. Others present in hotel-grounds ponds on Kaua'i, O'ahu, Maui, and Hawai'i Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea.
One present on Kaua'i Marriot hotel grounds Feb-Dec Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna. Pair of escapes reported at aquafarm near Kahuku, O'ahu 4 Sep Nov Radjah Mqkaweli Tadorna radjah.
Semi-wild flock up to 20 reported Kona Village Resort, Hawai'i I,occasionally wandering to nearby hotel grounds. Muscovy Duck Cairina moschata. Neighborhood flock of up to 75 along Ala Wai Canal, Kailua, O'ahu recorded irregularly on Honolulu Christmas Count, and islandwide high count of recorded in Most birds semi-domesticated and fed by humans. Hybrids with Mallards also reported.
Wood Duck Aix sponsa. Possibly nesting on O'ahu in late s E Some released near Kona, Hawai'i I late s apparently breeding, resulted in report of one on pond in Afrjcan Aug E One reported on Kaua'i 27 Dec Jan Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata.
Two on hotel grounds at Ka'anapali Maui 31 Mar Maned Duck Chenonetta jubata. A few reportedly imported and liberated in Honoluludid not survive Caum Chiloe Wigeon Anas sibilatrix. One reported Enchanted Lake, O'ahu, 30 Nov Blue-winged Teal Anas discors. As recommended by Henshawtwo pairs from Panama reportedly released Hawai'i I possibly and apparently persisted until at least but not known to breed HFA; Caum ; Swedberg a. Crested Guan Penelope purpurascens. Great Curassow Crax rubra.
Poorly documented releases reported on private land on Kaua'i inMoloka'i inand Lana'i in CaumMunroSwedberg a, Bergerfailed to survive.
Documented releases included on Kaua'ion O'ahuon Moloka'ion Lana'ion Mauiand on Hawai'i I Possibly established for short singgle WalkerBergerAOU but "not doing well" Munro and declining through s Schwartz and Schwartz Included in Hawaii Checklist by Pyle but removed by R. Pyle Reported releases of subspecies O. Northern Bobwhite Colinus virginianus. Small s released for field trials on Lana'i in observed for months after release.
Two reported from Polo Grounds in Princeville, Kaua'i Apr and occasional other observations in s on this island Denny ajerican one possible sighting near Huleia 29 Mar and individuals photographed at Halenanaha Res.
Scaled Quail Callipepla squamata. Fourteen of subspecies C. Elegant Quail Callipepla douglasii. Montezuma Quail Cyrtonyx montezumae. Eight of subspecies C.
A few individuals from Singapore reportedly released O'ahu in CaumLocey See-see Partridge Ammoperdix grisgeogularis. Barbary Partridge Alectoris barbara. Total of of nominate A. Considered not established by Bergerestablished by Pyleand possibly established by Berger ; removed from Hawaii Checklist by Pyle Heuglin's Francolin Pternistis icterorhynchus.
Red-billed Francolin Pternistis persus. Other, less-substantiated reports possibly of Chukarsare from Waimea 3 Afrocan 4 birdsnear Ainahou Ranch in birdsand along Saddle Road 29 Aug 2 birds. Clapperton's Francolin Pternistis clappertoni. Yellow-necked Francolin Pternistis leucoscepus. Limited reproductive success reported on Hawai'i I. Considered too tame for good sport Lewin Illustrated by Berger Chinese Francolin Francolinus pintadeanus.
Reported introduced to Hawaii in by Longapparently in error. Numerous introductions of nominate subspecies reported by HBAF and private individuals to Hawaii prior to CaumLoceySwedberg a, Walker included poorly documented release prior tounknown s to Kaua'i and Ni'ihau in andat least 14 to Hawai'i I in Locey"large s" to Maui and Hawai'i I ineach to Kaua'i including Pu'u Ka Pele and O'ahu including Laie Plain and Mokuleia in Oct Janand and to scattered localities on O'ahu Oct-Dec andrespectively.
Probably many more released with little documentation HFA reports Blue-breasted Quail Synoicus chinensis. Reportedly still persisting on Kaua'i through and considered established there by Bryan ; Munro considered it not established on Kaua'i but possibly on O'ahu.
Stubble Quail Coturnix pectoralis. Reported common on Ni'ihau in Fisher but possibly mistaken Japanese Quails. Chinese Bamboo-Partridge Bambusicola fythcii. Hunted in on Maui but take limited Bump and Bohl Report of bird, possibly this species, in hunter bag near Kula Jun-Jul Pyle ; considered established on Maui by Bergerand illustrated by Berger Gray Junglefowl Gallus sonneratii. May qfrican interbred with Gallus gallus taxa see Red Junglefowl.
Reeves Pheasant Syrmaticus reevesii. Mentioned by Locey but no details. Reported to occur locally on four islands in E and three islands in Bump and Bohl Copper Pheasant Syrmaticus soemmerringii. Unknown s reportedly brought in and released near Honolulu by W. At Waikamoi Prserve, Maui, a male was first observed probably released by a local breeder ina male was observed regularly inand up to two adults and two females with chicks were observed in Hammond By Golden Pheasants were also detected nearby at Manawainui in Haleakala NP beginning in and Hanawi Natural Area Reserveencompassing a total area of 12 km Hammond but in observations were limited to Waikamoi up to 3 birds on 28 Feb Lady Amherst Pheasant Chrysolophus amherstiae.